Anxiety Kate Walker by KarenYeomans.com


About

Clinical studies suggest that yoga, meditation, pranayama (breathing techniques) and mindfulness are effective anxiety treatments. They can help tackle both the immediate symptoms of anxiety and the underlying causes.

Anxiety creates shallow, choppy breath that stimulates the release of more stress hormones and increases feelings of agitation.

The practice of pranayama helps to create deep, slow rhythmic breathing, which can break this vicious cycle – reducing the production of stress hormones and calming the mind. This can bring fast relief to an acute situation like a panic attack or a racing heart and, if practiced regularly, can help us create a more lasting mental oasis.

Through meditation we can learn to stay in the power of the present moment rather than attaching ourselves to anxious thoughts about the future.

Asana (physical poses), especially the more introverted and passive postures, can help by calming the nervous system – making breathing easier, and stretching out tense muscles, helping to release anxiety held in the neck and spine.


What the clinical studies say

Yoga
  • Improve generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
  • Improves mood
  • Reduce social physique anxiety
  • Reduces anxiety
  • Reduces stress
Meditation
  • Reduces anxiety
  • Reduces performance anxiety
  • Reduces stress
Mindfulness
  • 3 year maintenance of gains on the Fear Survey
  • 3 year maintenance of gains on the Hamilton and Beck anxiety scales
  • 3 year maintenance of gains on the Hamilton and Beck depression scales
  • 3 year maintenance of gains on the Hamilton panic score
  • 3 year maintenance of gains on the Mobility Index-Accompanied
  • 3 year maintenance of gains on the number and severity of panic attacks
  • Alleviates depression
  • Alleviates obsessive compulsive disorder
  • Enhances emotional regulation
  • Improves social function
  • Increases spiritual experience
  • Increases vitality
  • Reduces anxiety
  • Reduces emotional reactivity
  • Reduces stress

The clinical studies

Effects of Yoga Versus Walking on Mood, Anxiety, and Brain GABA Levels: A Randomized Controlled MRS Study
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives:

Yoga and exercise have beneficial effects on mood and anxiety. g-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergicactivity is reduced in mood and anxiety disorders. The practice of yoga postures is associated with increased brain GABA levels. This study addresses the question of whether changes in mood, anxiety, and GABA levels are specific to yoga or related to physical activity.

Conclusion:

The 12-week yoga intervention was associated with greater improvements in mood and anxiety than a metabolically matched walking exercise. This is the first study to demonstrate that increased thalamic GABA levels are associated with improved mood and decreased anxiety. It is also the first time that a behavioral intervention (i.e., yoga postures) has been associated with a positive correlation between acute increases in thalamic GABA levels and improvements in mood and anxiety scales. Given that pharmacologic agents that increase the activity of the GABA system are prescribed to improve mood and decrease anxiety, the reported correlations are in the expected direction. The possible role of GABA in mediating the beneficial effects of yoga on mood and anxiety warrants further study.

Results:

The yoga subjects (n ¼ 19) reported greater improvement in mood and greater decreases in anxiety than the walking group (n ¼ 15). There were positive correlations between improved mood and decreased anxiety and thalamic GABA levels. The yoga group had positive correlations between changes in mood scales and changes in GABA levels.
Citations

143
Authors

Chris C Streeter | Theodore H Whitfield | Liz Owen | Tasha Rein | Surya K. Karri | Aleksandra Yakhind | Ruth Perlmutter | Andrew Prescott | Perry F. Resnshaw | Domenic A. Ciraulo | J. Eric Jensen
Published

2010
Journal

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume / Issue

16:11
Author's primary institution

Division of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine
Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence (4 studies)
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Between March and June 2004, a systematic review was carried out of the research evidence on the effectiveness of yoga for the treatment of anxiety and anxiety disorders. Eight studies were reviewed. They reported positive results, although there were many methodological inadequacies.

Owing to the diversity of conditions treated and poor quality of most of the studies, it is not possible to say that yoga is effective in treating anxiety or anxiety disorders in general. However, there are encouraging results, particularly with obsessive compulsive disorder. Further well conducted research is necessary which may be most productive if focused on specific anxiety disorders.
Citations

257
Authors

G Kirkwood | H. Rampes | V. Tuffrey | J. Richardson | K. Pilkington
Published

2005
Journal

Br J Sports Med
Volume / Issue

39:12
Author's primary institution

University of Westminster
The Effect of Mindfulness- Based Therapy on Anxiety and Depression: A Meta Analytic Review
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

Although mindfulness-based therapy has become a popular treatment, little is known about its efficacy. Therefore, our objective was to conduct an effect size analysis of this popular intervention for anxiety and mood symptoms in clinical samples.

Method:

We conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches. Our meta-analysis was based on 39 studies totaling 1,140 participants receiving mindfulness-based therapy for a range of conditions, including cancer, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and other psychiatric or medical conditions.

Results:

Effect size estimates suggest that mindfulness-based therapy was moderately effective for improving anxiety (Hedges' g 0.63) and mood symptoms (Hedges' g 0.59) from pre- to post treatment in the overall sample. In patients with anxiety and mood disorders, this intervention was associated with effect sizes (Hedges' g) of 0.97 and 0.95 for improving anxiety and mood symptoms, respectively.

Conclusion:

These results suggest that mindfulness based therapy is a promising intervention for treating anxiety and mood problems in clinical populations.
Citations

920
Authors

Stefan G. Hoffman | Alice T. Sawyer | Ashley A. Witt | Diana Oh
Published

2010
Journal

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume / Issue

78:2
Author's primary institution

Boston University
Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured group program that employs mindfulness meditation to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. The program, nonreligious and non esoteric, is based upon a systematic procedure to develop enhanced awareness of moment-to-moment experience of perceptible mental processes. The approach assumes that greater awareness will provide more veridical perception, reduce negative affect and improve vitality and coping. In the last two decades, a number of research reports appeared that seem to support many of these claims. We performed a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies of health-related studies related to MBSR.

Methods:

Sixty-four empirical studies were found, but only 20 reports met criteria of acceptable quality or relevance to be included in the meta-analysis. Reports were excluded due to (1) insufficient information about interventions, (2) poor quantitative health evaluation, (3) inadequate statistical analysis, (4) mindfulness not being the central component of intervention, or (5) the setting of intervention or sample composition deviating too widely from the health-related MBSR program. Acceptable studies covered a wide spectrum of clinical populations (e.g., pain, cancer, heart disease, depression, and anxiety), as well as stressed nonclinical groups. Both controlled and observational investigations were included. Standardized measures of physical and mental well-being constituted the dependent variables of the analysis.

Results:

Overall, both controlled and uncontrolled studies showed similar effect sizes of approximately 0.5 ( P < .0001) with homogeneity of distribution.

Conclusion:

Although derived from a relatively small number of studies, these results suggest that MBSR may help a broad range of individuals to cope with their clinical and nonclinical problems.
Citations

1961
Authors

Paul Grossman | Ludger Niemann | Stefan Schmidt | Harald Walach
Published

2004
Journal

Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Volume / Issue

57:1
Author's primary institution

Freiburg Institute for Mindfulness Research. Freiburg Germany
Meditative Therapies for Reducing Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders; meditative therapies are frequently sought by patients with anxiety as a complementary therapy. Although multiple reviews exist on the general health benefits of meditation, no review has been focused on the efficacy of meditation for anxiety specifically.

METHODS:

Major medical databases were searched thoroughly with keywords related to various types of meditation AND anxiety. Over 1000 abstracts were screened, and 200+ full articles were reviewed. Only RCTs were included. The Boutron (2005) checklist to evaluate a report of a non-pharmaceutical trial (CLEAR-NPT) was used to assess study quality; 90% authors were contacted for additional information. Review Manager 5 was used for meta-analysis.

RESULTS:

A total of 36 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis (2,466 observations). Most RCTs were conducted among patients with anxiety as a secondary concern. The study quality ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 on the 0.0–1.0 scale (mean = 0.72). Standardized mean difference (SMD) was −0.52 in comparison with waiting-list control (p < .001; 25 RCTs), −0.59 in comparison with attention control (p < .001; 7 RCTs), and −0.27 in comparison with alternative treatments (p < 0.01; 10 RCTs). 25 studies reported statistically superior outcomes in the meditation group compared to control. No adverse effects were reported.

CONCLUSIONS:

This review demonstrates some efficacy of meditative therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, which has important clinical implications for applying meditative techniques in treating anxiety. However, most studies measured only improvement in anxiety symptoms, but not anxiety disorders as clinically diagnosed.
Citations

30
Authors

Kelvin W Chen | Christine C. Berger | Eric Manheimer | Darlene Forde | Jessica Magisdon | Laya Dachman | C.W. Lejeuz
Published

2012
Journal

Depression and Anxiety
Volume / Issue

29:7
Author's primary institution

Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Abstract:

While cognitive behavior therapy has been found to be effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a significant percentage of patients struggle with residual symptoms. There is some conceptual basis for suggesting that cultivation of mindfulness may be helpful for people with GAD. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group treatment derived from mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn and colleagues. MBSR uses training in mindfulness meditation as the core of the program. MBCT incorporates cognitive strategies and has been found effective in reducing relapse in patients with major depression (Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V., Soulsby, J., & Lau, M. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 6, 615–623).

Method:

Eligible subjects recruited to a major academic medical center participated in the group MBCT course and completed measures of anxiety, worry, depressive symptoms, mood states and mindful awareness in everyday life at baseline and end of treatment.

Results:

Eleven subjects (six female and five male) with a mean age of 49 (range = 36–72) met criteria and completed the study. There were significant reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms from baseline to end of treatment.

Conclusion:

MBCT may be an acceptable and potentially effective treatment for reducing anxiety and mood symptoms and increasing awareness of everyday experiences in patients with GAD. Future directions include development of a randomized clinical trial of MBCT for GAD.
Citations

320
Authors

Susan Evans | Stephen Ferrando | Marianne Findler | Charles Stowell | Colette Smart | Dean Haglin
Published

2007
Journal

Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Volume / Issue

22:4
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College, United States
Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive–affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain–behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation of negative self-beliefs in patients with SAD.

Sixteen patients underwent functional MRI while reacting to negative self-beliefs and while regulating negative emotions using 2 types of attention deployment emotion regulation—breath-focused attention and distraction-focused attention. Post-MBSR, 14 patients completed neuroimaging assessments.

Compared with baseline, MBSR completers showed improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem. During the breath-focused attention task (but not the distraction-focused attention task), they also showed (a) decreased negative emotion experience, (b) reduced amygdala activity, and (c) increased activity in brain regions implicated in attentional deployment.

MBSR training in patients with SAD may reduce emotional reactivity while enhancing emotion regulation. These changes might facilitate reduction in SAD-related avoidance behaviors, clinical symptoms, and automatic emotional reactivity to negative self-beliefs in adults with SAD.
Citations

285
Authors

Philippe R Goldin | James J Gross
Published

2010
Journal

PsychARTICLES, Emotion
Volume / Issue

10:
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychology, Jordan Hall, Building 420, Stanford, CA 94305-2130, USA
Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Technique on Trait Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) technique updates previous meta-analyses and assesses the effects of initial anxiety level, age, duration of practice, regularity of practice, research quality, author affiliation, and type of control group on effect sizes.

Design:

This systematic review of the literature used the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) program for core analyses of effect sizes, bias analysis, meta-regression, and moderator variable analysis. Comprehensive literature searches included databases devoted to meditation research.

Results:

More than 600 TM research papers were identified; 14 of these addressed trait anxiety and reported on 16 studies among 1295 participants with diverse demographic characteristics. No adverse effects were reported. The standardized difference in mean, d, for the TM technique compared with controls receiving an active alternative treatment (10 studies) was d=−0.50 (95% CI, −.70 to −0.30; p=0.0000005). Compared with controls receiving treatment as usual (wait list or attention controls, 16 studies), d=−0.62 (95% CI, −0.82 to −0.43; p=1.37E-10). Meta-regression found that initial anxiety level, but not other variables, predicted the magnitude of reduction in anxiety (p=0.00001). Populations with elevated initial anxiety levels in the 80th to 100th percentile range (e.g., patients with chronic anxiety, veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder, prison inmates) showed larger effects sizes (−0.74 to −1.2), with anxiety levels reduced to the 53rd to 62nd percentile range. Studies using repeated measures showed substantial reductions in the first 2 weeks and sustained effects at 3 years.

Conclusion:

Overall, TM practice is more effective than treatment as usual and most alternative treatments, with greatest effects observed in individuals with high anxiety. More research is needed in this area, especially with high-anxiety patients, conducted under medically supervised conditions
Citations

14
Authors

David W. Orme-Johnson | Vernon A. Barnes
Published

2014
Journal

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume / Issue

20:5
Author's primary institution

Georgia Prevention Center, Institute of Public and Preventive Health, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA
Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current Episode of an Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can reduce risk of depressive relapse for people with a history of recurrent depression who are currently well. However, the cognitive, affective and motivational features of depression and anxiety might render MBIs ineffective for people experiencing current symptoms. This paper presents a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of MBIs where participants met diagnostic criteria for a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder.

Method:

Post-intervention between-group Hedges g effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Moderator analyses of primary diagnosis, intervention type and control condition were conducted and publication bias was assessed.

Results:

Twelve studies met inclusion criteria (n = 578). There were significant post-intervention between-group benefits of MBIs relative to control conditions on primary symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.59, 95% CI = −0.12 to −1.06). Effects were demonstrated for depressive symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.73, 95% CI = −0.09 to −1.36), but not for anxiety symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.55, 95% CI = 0.09 to −1.18), for RCTs with an inactive control (Hedges g = −1.03, 95% CI = −0.40 to −1.66), but not where there was an active control (Hedges g = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.54 to −0.48) and effects were found for MBCT (Hedges g = −0.39, 95% CI = −0.15 to −0.63) but not for MBSR (Hedges g = −0.75, 95% CI = 0.31 to −1.81).

Conclusions:

This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population.
Citations

5
Authors

Clara Strauss | Kate Cavangh | Annie Oliver | Danelle Pettman
Published

2014
Journal

PLOS ONE
Volume / Issue

Author's primary institution

School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Famler, United Kingdom
Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on state and trait anxiety
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Considerable evidence exists for the place of mind body medicine in the treatment of anxiety orders. Excessive anxiety is maladaptive. It is often considered to be the major component of unhealthy lifestyle that contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of not only psychiatric but also many other systemic disorders. Among the approaches to reduce the level of anxiety has been the search for healthy lifestyles.

The aim of the study was to study the short-term impact of a comprehensive but brief lifestyle intervention, based on yoga, on anxiety levels in normal and diseased subjects. The study was the result of operational research carried out in the Integral Health Clinic (IHC) at the Department of Physiology of All India Institute of Medical Sciences.

The subjects had history of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, ‘stress’), gastrointestinal problems (non ulcer dyspepsia, duodenal ulcers, irritable bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, chronic constipation) and thyroid disorders (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism).

The intervention consisted of asanas, pranayama, relaxation techniques, group support, individualized advice, and lectures and films on philosophy of yoga, the place of yoga in daily life, meditation, stress management, nutrition, and knowledge about the illness.

The outcome measures were anxiety scores, taken on the first and last day of the course. Anxiety scores, both state and trait anxiety were significantly reduced. Among the diseased subjects significant improvement was seen in the anxiety levels of patients of hypertension, coronary artery disease, obesity, cervical spondylitis and those with psychiatric disorders.

The observations suggest that a short educational programme for lifestyle modification and stress management leads to remarkable reduction in the anxiety scores within a period of 10 days.
Citations

135
Authors

Nidhi Gupta | Shveta Khera | R.P Vempati | Ratna Sharma | R.L Bijlani
Published

2006
Journal

Indian Journal Physiol Parmacol
Volume / Issue

51:41-47
Author's primary institution

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

A previous study of 22 medical patients with DSM-III-R-defined anxiety disorders showed clinically and statistically significant improvements in subjective and objective symptoms of anxiety and panic following an 8-week outpatient physician-referred group stress reduction intervention based on mindfulness meditation. Twenty subjects demonstrated significant reductions in Hamilton and Beck Anxiety and Depression scores post intervention and at 3-month follow-up.

In this study, 3-year follow-up data were obtained and analyzed on 18 of the original 22 subjects to probe long-term effects. Repeated measures analysis showed maintenance of the gains obtained in the original study on the Hamilton [F(2,32) = 13.22; p < 0.001] and Beck [F(2,32) = 9.83; p < 0.001] anxiety scales as well as on their respective depression scales, on the Hamilton panic score, the number and severity of panic attacks, and on the Mobility Index-Accompanied and the Fear Survey.

A 3-year follow-up comparison of this cohort with a larger group of subjects from the intervention who had met criteria for screening for the original study suggests generalizability of the results obtained with the smaller, more intensively studied cohort. Ongoing compliance with the meditation practice was also demonstrated in the majority of subjects at 3 years.

We conclude that an intensive but time-limited group stress reduction intervention based on mindfulness meditation can have long-term beneficial effects in the treatment of people diagnosed with anxiety disorders.
Citations

852
Authors

John J. Miller | Ken Fletcher | Jon Kabat-Zinn
Published

1993
Journal

Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
Volume / Issue

17:3
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
A randomised comparative trial of yoga and relaxation to reduce stress and anxiety
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

To compare yoga and relaxation as treatment modalities at 10 and 16 weeks from study baseline to determine if either of modality reduces subject stress, anxiety, blood pressure and improve quality of life.

Design::

A randomised comparative trial was undertaken comparing yoga with relaxation.

Participants::

One hundred and thirty-one subjects with mild to moderate levels of stress were recruited from the community in South Australia.

Interventions: :

Ten weekly 1-h sessions of relaxation or hatha yoga. Main outcome measures::

Changes in the State Trait Personality Inventory sub-scale anxiety, General Health Questionnaire and the Short Form-36.

Results: :

Following the 10 week intervention stress, anxiety and quality of life scores improved over time. Yoga was found to be as effective as relaxation in reducing stress, anxiety and improving health status on seven domains of the SF-36. Yoga was more effective than relaxation in improving mental health. At the end of the 6 week follow-up period there were no differences between groups in levels of stress, anxiety and on five domains of the SF-36. Vitality, social function and mental health scores on the SF-36 were higher in the relaxation group during the follow-up period.

Conclusion: :

Yoga appears to provide a comparable improvement in stress, anxiety and health status compared to relaxation.
Citations

200
Authors

Caroline Smith | Heather Hancock | Jane Blake-Mortimer | Kerena Eckert
Published

2006
Journal

Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Volume / Issue

15:2
Author's primary institution

University of South Australia, Australia
Effects of yoga on depression and anxiety of women
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Abstract:

Yoga has often been perceived as a method of stress management tool that can assist in alleviating depression and anxiety disorders. This study sought to evaluate the influence of yoga in relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety in women who were referred to a yoga clinic.

Methods:

The study involved a convenience sample of women who were referred to a yoga clinic from July 2006 to July 2007.All new cases were evaluated on admission using a personal information questionnaire well as Beck and Spielberger tests. Participants were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group (n = 34) participated in twice weekly yoga classes of 90 min duration for two months. The control group (n = 31) was assigned to a waiting list and did not receive yoga. Both groups were evaluated again after the two-month study period. Results:

The average prevalence of depression in the experimental group pre and post Yoga intervention was 12.82 ± 7.9 and 10.79 ± 6.04 respectively, a statistically insignificant decrease (p = 0.13). However, when the experimental group was compared to the control group, women who participated in yoga classes showed a significant decrease in state anxiety (p = 0.03) and trait anxiety (p < 0.001). Conclusions:

Participation in a two-month yoga class can lead to significant reduction in perceived levels of anxiety in women who suffer from anxiety disorders. This study suggests that yoga can be considered as a complementary therapy or an alternative method for medical therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
Citations

141
Authors

M. Javnbakht | R. Hejazi Kenari | M. Ghasemi
Published

2009
Journal

Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Volume / Issue

15:2
Author's primary institution

Psychiatry Department of Islamic Azad University, Mashdad, Iran
Exercise, yoga, and meditation for depressive and anxiety disorders
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Anxiety and depression are among the most common conditions cited by those seeking treatment with complementary and alternative therapies, such as exercise, meditation, tai chi, qigong, and yoga. The use of these therapies is increasing.

Several studies of exercise and yoga have demonstrated therapeutic effectiveness superior to no-activity controls and comparable with established depression and anxiety treatments (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy, sertraline, imipramine). High-energy exercise (i.e., weekly expenditure of at least 17.5 kcal per kg) and frequent aerobic exercise (i.e., at least three to five times per week) reduce symptoms of depression more than less frequent or lower-energy exercise.

Mindful meditation and exercise have positive effects as adjunctive treatments for depressive disorders, although some studies show multiple methodological weaknesses. For anxiety disorders, exercise and yoga have also shown positive effects, but there are far less data on the effects of exercise on anxiety than for exercise on depression. Tai chi, qigong, and meditation have not shown effectiveness as alternative treatments for depression and anxiety.
Citations

53
Authors

SA Saeed | D J Antonacci | R M Bloch
Published

2010
Journal

American Family Physician
Volume / Issue

81:8
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychiatric Medicine, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 
Yoga in the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders: A review
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

Patient use of complementary and alternative treatments, including yoga, to manage mood and anxiety disorders, has been well documented. Despite research interest, there are few recent reviews of the evidence of the benefit of yoga in these conditions.

Method:

The PubMed, Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched for literature published up to July 2008, relating to yoga and depressive and anxiety disorders.

Results:

The paucity of reported studies and several methodological constraints limit data interpretation. In depressive disorders, yoga may be comparable to medication and the combination superior to medication alone. There is reasonable evidence for its use as second-line monotherapy or augmentation to medication in mild to moderate major depression and dysthymia, with early evidence of benefit in more severe depression. In anxiety disorders, yoga may be superior to medication for a subgroup of patients, but its benefits in specific conditions are still largely unknown. Second-line monotherapy is indicated in performance or test anxiety, but only preliminary evidence exists for obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Yoga appears to be superior to no treatment and progressive relaxation for both depression and anxiety, and may benefit mood and anxiety symptoms associated with medical illness. It shows good safety and tolerability in short-term treatment.

Conclusion:

Reasonable evidence supports the benefit of yoga in specific depressive disorders. The evidence is still preliminary in anxiety disorders. Given its patient appeal and the promising findings thus far, further research on yoga in these conditions is encouraged.
Citations

40
Authors

Tricia L. da Silva | Lakshmi N Ravindran | Arun V. Ravindran
Published

2009
Journal

Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Volume / Issue

2:1
Author's primary institution

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., Toronto, Ont., Canada M5T 1R8
Sudarshan kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part II-clinical applications and guidelines
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and influencing psychologic and stress-related disorders. Part I of this series presented a neurophysiologic theory of the effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY). Part II will review clinical studies, our own clinical observations, and guidelines for the safe and effective use of yoga breath techniques in a wide range of clinical conditions.

Although more clinical studies are needed to document the benefits of programs that combine pranayama (yogic breathing) asanas (yoga postures), and meditation, there is sufficient evidence to consider Sudarshan Kriya Yoga to be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. SKY has been used as a public health intervention to alleviate PTSD in survivors of mass disasters.

Yoga techniques enhance well-being, mood, attention, mental focus, and stress tolerance. Proper training by a skilled teacher and a 30-minute practice every day will maximize the benefits. Health care providers play a crucial role in encouraging patients to maintain their yoga practices.
Citations

260
Authors

Richard P. Brown | Patricia L. Gerbarg
Published

2005
Journal

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume / Issue

11:4
Author's primary institution

Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY
Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

Anxiety disorders are characterised by long term worry, tension, nervousness, fidgeting and symptoms of autonomic system hyperactivity. Meditation is an age-old self regulatory strategy which is gaining more interest in mental health and psychiatry. Meditation can reduce arousal state and may ameliorate anxiety symptoms in various anxiety conditions.

Objectives:

To investigate the effectiveness of meditation therapy in treating anxiety disorders

Search methods:

Electronic databases searched include CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References, complementary and alternative medicine specific databases, Science Citation Index, Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database, and grey literature databases. Conference proceedings, book chapters and references were checked. Study authors and experts from religious/spiritual organisations were contacted.

Selection criteria:

Types of studies: Randomised controlled trials.
Types of participants: patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders, with or without another comorbid psychiatric condition.
Types of interventions: concentrative meditation or mindfulness meditation.
Comparison conditions: one or combination of 1) pharmacological therapy 2) other psychological treatment 3) other methods of meditation 4) no intervention or waiting list.
Types of outcome: 1) improvement in clinical anxiety scale 2) improvement in anxiety level specified by triallists, or global improvement 3) acceptability of treatment, adverse effects 4) dropout.

Data collection and analysis:

Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer, and the authors of the studies were contacted for further information.

Main results:

Two randomised controlled studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Both studies were of moderate quality and used active control comparisons (another type of meditation, relaxation, biofeedback). Anti-anxiety drugs were used as standard treatment. The duration of trials ranged from 3 months (12 weeks) to 18 weeks. In one study transcendental meditation showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms and electromyography score comparable with electromyography-biofeedback and relaxation therapy. Another study compared Kundalini Yoga (KY), with Relaxation/Mindfulness Meditation. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The overall dropout rate in both studies was high (33-44%). Neither study reported on adverse effects of meditation.

Authors' conclusions:

The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety, and Kundalini Yoga did not show significant effectiveness in treating obsessive-compulsive disorders compared with Relaxation/Meditation. Drop out rates appear to be high, and adverse effects of meditation have not been reported. More trials are needed.
Citations

140
Authors

Thawatchai Krisanaprakornkit | Wimonrat Sriraj | Nawanant Piyavhatkul | Malinee Laopaiboon
Published

2006
Journal

Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group
Volume / Issue

Author's primary institution

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, KhonKaen, Thailand
Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a group stress reduction program based on mindfulness meditation for patients with anxiety disorders.

METHOD:

The 22 study participants were screened with a structured clinical interview and found to meet the DSM- III-R criteria for generalized anxiety disorder or panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Assessments, including self-ratings and therapists' ratings, were obtained weekly before and during the meditation-based stress reduction and relaxation program and monthly during the 3-month follow-up period.

RESULTS:

Repeated measures analyses of variance documented significant reductions in anxiety and depression scores after treatment for 20 of the subjects--changes that were maintained at follow-up. The number of subjects experiencing panic symptoms was also substantially reduced. A comparison of the study subjects with a group of nonstudy participants in the program who met the initial screening criteria for entry into the study showed that both groups achieved similar reductions in anxiety scores on the SCL-90- R and on the Medical Symptom Checklist, suggesting generalizability of the study findings.

CONCLUSIONS:

A group mindfulness meditation training program can effectively reduce symptoms of anxiety and panic and can help maintain these reductions in patients with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or panic disorder with agoraphobia.
Citations

1435
Authors

LG Peterson | L Pbert
Published

1992
Journal

American Journal of Psychiatry
Volume / Issue

149:7
Author's primary institution

Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01605
Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among distressed women as a consequence of a three-month intensive yoga program.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

Emotional distress is an increasing public health problem andHatha yoga has been claimed to induce stress reduction and empowerment in practicing subjects. We aimed to evaluate potential effects of Iyengar Hatha yoga on perceived stress and associated psychological outcomes in mentally distressed women.

Material/Methods:

A controlled prospective non-randomized study was conducted in 24 self-referred female subjects (mean age 37.9+/-7.3 years) who perceived themselves as emotionally distressed. Subjects were offered participation in one of two subsequential 3-months yoga programs. Group 1 (n=16) participated in the first class, group 2 (n=8) served as a waiting list control. During the yoga course, subjects attended two-weekly 90-min Iyengar yoga classes. Outcome was assessed on entry and after 3 months by Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, CESD-Depression Scale, Bf-S/Bf-S' Well-Being Scales, Freiburg Complaint List and ratings of physical well-being. Salivary cortisol levels were measured before and after an evening yoga class in a second sample.

Results:

Compared to waiting-list, women who participated in the yoga-training demonstrated pronounced and significant improvements in perceived stress
Citations

247
Authors

Andreas Michalsen | Paul Grossman | Ayhan Acil | Jost Langhorst | Rainer Lüdtke | Tobias Esch | George Stefano | Gustav Dobos
Published

2005
Journal

Medical Science Monitor
Volume / Issue

0.46666666667
Author's primary institution

Department of Integrative and Internal Medicine V, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Chair of Complementary Medicine at the University Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Mindfulness Meditation, Anxiety Reduction, and Heart Disease: A Pilot Study
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Heart disease is the leading cause of death among Americans each year, yet the misperception still exists that cardiovascular disease is not a serious health problem for women. Evidence indicates that anxiety contributes to the development of heart disease. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Kabat-Zinn's mindfulness-based stress reduction program to reduce anxiety in women with heart disease. Anxiety, emotional control, coping styles, and health locus of control were compared in a treatment and control group of women with heart disease.

Post-intervention analyses provide initial support for beneficial effects of this program.
Citations

192
Authors

Anna M Tacon | Jacalyn McComb | Yvonne Caldera | Patrick Randolph
Published

2003
Journal

Family & Community Health:
Volume / Issue

26:1
Author's primary institution

The Department of Health, Exercise, and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University, USA.
Effect of two yoga-based relaxation techniques on memory scores and state anxiety
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

A yoga practice involving cycles of yoga postures and supine rest (called cyclic meditation) was previously shown to improve performance in attention tasks more than relaxation in the corpse posture (shavasana). This was ascribed to reduced anxiety, though this was not assessed.

Methods:

In fifty-seven male volunteers (group average age ± S.D., 26.6 ± 4.5 years) the immediate effect of two yoga relaxation techniques was studied on memory and state anxiety. All participants were assessed before and after (i) Cyclic meditation (CM) practiced for 22:30 minutes on one day and (ii) an equal duration of Supine rest (SR) or the corpse posture (shavasana), on another day. Sections of the Wechsler memory scale (WMS) were used to assess; (i) attention and concentration (digit span forward and backward), and (ii) associate learning. State anxiety was assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).

Results:

There was a significant improvement in the scores of all sections of the WMS studied after both CM and SR, but, the magnitude of change was more after CM compared to after SR. The state anxiety scores decreased after both CM and SR, with a greater magnitude of decrease after CM. There was no correlation between percentage change in memory scores and state anxiety for either session.

Conclusion:

A cyclical combination of yoga postures and supine rest in CM improved memory scores immediately after the practice and decreased state anxiety more than rest in a classical yoga relaxation posture (shavasana).#
Citations

45
Authors

Pailoor Subramanya | Shirley Telles
Published

2009
Journal

BioPsychoSocial Medicine
Volume / Issue

3:8
Author's primary institution

Indian Council of Medical Research Center for Advanced Research in Yoga and Neurophysiology, SVYASA, Bangalore, India
Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

A previous study of 22 medical patients with DSM-III-R-defined anxiety disorders showed clinically and statistically significant improvements in subjective and objective symptoms of anxiety and panic following an 8-week outpatient physician-referred group stress reduction intervention based on mindfulness meditation. Twenty subjects demonstrated significant reductions in Hamilton and Beck Anxiety and Depression scores post intervention and at 3-month follow-up.

In this study, 3-year follow-up data were obtained and analyzed on 18 of the original 22 subjects to probe long-term effects. Repeated measures analysis showed maintenance of the gains obtained in the original study on the Hamilton [F(2,32) = 13.22; p < 0.001] and Beck [F(2,32) = 9.83; p < 0.001] anxiety scales as well as on their respective depression scales, on the Hamilton panic score, the number and severity of panic attacks, and on the Mobility Index-Accompanied and the Fear Survey. A 3-year follow-up comparison of this cohort with a larger group of subjects from the intervention who had met criteria for screening for the original study suggests generalizability of the results obtained with the smaller, more intensively studied cohort.

Ongoing compliance with the meditation practice was also demonstrated in the majority of subjects at 3 years. We conclude that an intensive but time-limited group stress reduction intervention based on mindfulness meditation can have long-term beneficial effects in the treatment of people diagnosed with anxiety disorders.
Citations

875
Authors

John J. Miller M.D | Ken Fletcher Ph.D. | Jon Kabat-Zinn Ph.D.
Published

1995
Journal

General Hospital Psychiatry
Volume / Issue

17:3
Author's primary institution

The Stress Reduction Clinic, Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
Establishing key components of yoga interventions for reducing depression and anxiety, and improving well-being: a Delphi method study
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background

Previous research suggests benefits of yoga in reducing depression and anxiety. However, common concerns in reviews of the research include lack of detail, rationale and consistency of approach of interventions used. Issues related to heterogeneity include amount, types and delivery of yoga interventions. This study aims to document consensus-based recommendations for consistency of yoga interventions for reducing depression and anxiety.

Methods

The Delphi method was used to establish consensus from experienced yoga teachers. Thirty-three eligible teachers were invited to participate, from four different countries. Two rounds of an online survey were sent to participants. The first round sought initial views. The second round sought consensus on a summary of those views. Survey questions related to frequency and duration (dosage) of the yoga, approaches and techniques to be included or avoided, and training and experience for yoga teachers.

Results

Twenty-four teachers agreed to participate. Eighteen completed the second round (n = 18). General consensus (>75% of participants in agreement) was achieved on parameters of practice (dosage): an average of 30 to 40 minutes, to be done 5 times per week, over a period of 6 weeks. Numerous recommendations for yoga techniques to include or avoid were collected in the first round. The second round produced a consensus statement on those recommendations. Breath regulation and postures were considered very important or essential for people with depression; and relaxation, breath regulation and meditation being very important or essential for people with anxiety. Other recommended components also achieved consensus. There was also general consensus that it is very important or essential for teachers to have a minimum of 500 training hours over 2 years, at least 2 years teaching experience, training in developing personalised yoga practices, training in yoga for mental health, and professional supervision or mentoring.

Conclusions

The Delphi process has achieved a consensus statement on the application of yoga for reducing anxiety and depression. This consensus provides a checklist for identification of commonalities and evaluation of past research. Future research can proceed to develop and evaluate consensus-based yoga intervention protocols for the reduction of anxiety and depression, and improvements in well-being.
Citations

0
Authors

Michae de Manincor | Aland Bensoussan | Caroline Smith | Paul Fahey | Suzanne Bourchier
Published

2015
Journal

BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Volume / Issue

15:85
Author's primary institution

University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown Campus, Locked Bag, Penrith, NSW, Australia
Effect of a yoga practice session and a yoga theory session on state anxiety
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Yoga techniques practiced for varying durations have been shown to reduce state anxiety. In this study, there were 300 naïve-to-yoga persons of both sexes who were attending a yoga therapy center in north India for stress relief as day visitors and were not residing at the center. They were assigned to two groups, yoga practice and yoga theory, and their state anxiety was assessed before and after a 2-hr. yoga session. A significant reduction in scores on state anxiety was found in the yoga practice group (14.7% decrease), as well as in the yoga theory group (3.4% decrease). The difference in scores following the sessions was statistically significant. Hence, yoga practice as well as learning about theoretical aspects of yoga appear to reduce state anxiety, with a greater reduction following yoga practice.
Citations

47
Authors

Shirley Telles | Vaishali Gaur | Acharya Balkhriishna
Published

2009
Journal

Perceptual and Motor Skills
Volume / Issue

109:1
Author's primary institution

Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar, India
A systematic review of yoga for state anxiety: considerations for occupational therapy
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background.

State anxiety can result from a variety of life situations. This type of anxiety can disrupt occupational engagement and performance, thereby affecting rehabilitation and recovery. Occupational therapists need to address the connection between mind-body-spirit and its relationship to performance and engagement in meaningful occupations. Yoga, when used as an adjunct to therapy, has the potential to address state anxiety.

Purpose.

The aim was to systematically review the evidence concerning the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment approach for state anxiety.

Methods.

Six electronic databases, the authors’ own files, and the references of included studies from 1990 to July 2011 were searched.

Findings.

A total of 25 unique studies represented by 26 publications made up the sample: two systematic reviews; 16 randomized controlled trials, and seven prospective, controlled, non-randomized studies. Evidence suggests yoga can be a viable therapeutic option for reducing state anxiety in certain situations.

Implications.

In making the determination to recommend yoga as an intervention, occupational therapists should consider the client’s circumstances and values as well as the type and intensity of the yoga program.
Citations

3
Authors

Neha Chugh-Gupta, Fulvia G. Baldassarre, Brenda Vrkjan
Published

2013
Journal

Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Volume / Issue

30 : 8
Author's primary institution

School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University
Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Between March and June 2004, a systematic review was carried out of the research evidence on the effectiveness of yoga for the treatment of anxiety and anxiety disorders. Eight studies were reviewed. They reported positive results, although there were many methodological inadequacies. Owing to the diversity of conditions treated and poor quality of most of the studies, it is not possible to say that yoga is effective in treating anxiety or anxiety disorders in general. However, there are encouraging results, particularly with obsessive compulsive disorder. Further well conducted research is necessary which may be most productive if focused on specific anxiety disorders.
Citations

288
Authors

G Kirkwood, H Rampes, V Tuffrey, J Richardson, K Pilkington
Published

2005
Journal

British Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume / Issue

39
Author's primary institution

Research Council for Complementary Medicine, London, UK
Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation for generalized anxiety disorder: effects on anxiety and stress reactivity
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective

Mindfulness meditation has met increasing interest as a therapeutic strategy for anxiety disorders, but prior studies have been limited by methodological concerns, including a lack of an active comparison group. This is the first randomized, controlled trial comparing the manualized Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program with an active control for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, a disorder characterized by chronic worry and physiological hyperarousal symptoms.

Method

Ninety-three individuals with DSM-IV-diagnosed GAD were randomized to an 8-week group intervention with MBSR or to an attention control, Stress Management Education (SME) between 2009 and 2011. Anxiety symptoms were measured with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A, primary outcome measure), the Clinical Global Impression of Severity and Improvement (CGI-S and CGI-I), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Stress reactivity was assessed by comparing anxiety and distress during pre- and post-treatment Trier Social Stress Tests (TSST).

Results

A modified intent-to-treat analysis including participants who completed at least one session of MBSR (N=48) or SME (N=41) showed that both interventions led to significant reductions in HAM-A scores at endpoint, but did not significantly differ. MBSR, however, was associated with a significantly greater reduction in anxiety as measured by the CGI-S, the CGI-I, and the BAI (all Ps<0.05). MBSR was also associated with greater reductions than SME in anxiety and distress ratings in response to the TSST stress challenge (P<0.05), and a greater increase in positive self-statements (P=0.004).

Conclusions

These results suggest that MBSR may have a beneficial effect on anxiety symptoms in GAD, and may also improve stress reactivity and coping as measured in a laboratory stress challenge.
Citations

39
Authors

Elizabeth A Hoge, Eric Bui, Luana Marques, Christina A Metcalf, Laura K. Morris, Donald J. Robinaugh, JohnJ. Worthington, Mark H. Pollak, Naomi M. Simon
Published

2014
Journal

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume / Issue

74 : 8
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
Effectiveness of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for major psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

To examine the efficacy of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Data Sources:

Eligible trials were identified by a literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Control Trials Register, Google Scholar, and EBSCO on the basis of criteria of acceptable quality and relevance. The search was performed using the following terms: yoga for schizophrenia, yoga for depression, yoga for anxiety, yoga for PTSD, yoga therapy, yoga for psychiatric disorders, complementary treatment, and efficacy of yoga therapy. Trials both unpublished and published with no limitation placed on year of publication were included; however, the oldest article included in the final meta-analysis was published in 2000.

Study Selection:

All available randomized, controlled trials of yoga for the treatment of mental illness were reviewed, and 10 studies were eligible for inclusion. As very few randomized, controlled studies have examined yoga for mental illness, this meta-analysis includes studies with participants who were diagnosed with mental illness, as well as studies with participants who were not diagnosed with mental illness but reported symptoms of mental illness. Trials were excluded due to the following: (1) insufficient information, (2) inadequate statistical analysis, (3) yoga was not the central component of the intervention, (4) subjects were not diagnosed with or did not report experiencing symptoms of one of the psychiatric disorders of interest (ie, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and PTSD), (5) study was not reported in English, and (6) study did not include a control group.

Data Extraction:

Data were extracted on participant diagnosis, inclusion criteria, treatment and control groups, duration of intervention, and results (pre-post mean and standard deviations, t values, and f values). Number, age, and sex ratio of participants were also obtained when available.

Data Synthesis:

The combined analysis of all 10 studies provided a pooled effect size of −3.25 (95% CI, −5.36 to −1.14; P = .002), indicating that yoga-based interventions have a statistically significant effect as an adjunct treatment for major psychiatric disorders. Findings in support of alternative and complementary interventions may especially be an aid in the treatment of disorders for which current treatments are found to be inadequate or to carry severe liabilities.

Conclusions:

As current psychopharmacologic interventions for severe mental illness are associated with increased risk of weight gain as well as other metabolic side effects that increase patients’ risk for cardiovascular disease, yoga may be an effective, far less toxic adjunct treatment option for severe mental illness.
Citations

29
Authors

Patricia Cabral, Hilary B. Meyer, Donna Ames
Published

2011
Journal

The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders
Volume / Issue

13 : 4
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychology, California State University, Nothridge
Silent illumination: a study on Chan (Zen) meditation, anxiety, and musical performance quality
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives

This study investigated the effects of Chan (Zen) meditation on musical performance anxiety and musical performance quality.

Method

Nineteen participants were recruited from music conservatories and randomly assigned to either an eight-week meditation group or a wait-list control group. After the intervention, all participants performed in a public concert. Outcome measures were performance anxiety and musical performance quality.

Results

Meditation practiced over a short term did not significantly improve musical performance quality. The control group demonstrated a significant decrease in performance quality with increases in performance anxiety. The meditation group demonstrated the opposite effect — a positive linear relation between performance quality and performance anxiety.

Conclusions

This finding indicates that enhanced concentration and mindfulness (silent illumination), cultivated by Chan practice, might enable one to channel performance anxiety to improve musical performance
Citations

36
Authors

| Peter Lin | Joanne Chang | Vance Zemon | Elizabeth Midlarsky
Published

2007
Journal

Psychology of Music
Volume / Issue

36:2
Author's primary institution

Columbia University, City University of New York, Yeshiva University
Anxiety reduction following exercise and meditation
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the influence of acute physical activity and meditation (“noncultic”)on state anxiety.

Method

Seventy-five adult male volunteers served as Ss with 25 Ss randomly assigned to either an exercise, meditation, or control group. Physical activity was performed at 70% of self-imposed maximal exercise heart rate for 20 minutes by Ss in the exercise group; Ss assigned to the meditation group practiced Benson's Relaxation Response for 20 minutes; and Ss in the control group simply rested quietly in a “Lazyboy” chair for 20 minutes. State anxiety was measured with the Spielberger Scale, and it was assessed (1)prior to, (2)immediately following, and (3)10 minutes following each treatment. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, skin temperature, and blood pressure were also measured as confirmatory variables under selected conditions.

Results

The data were analyzed by means of a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, and this analysis revealed that a significant reduction in anxiety occurred for each treatment. This held for both those Ss falling within the normal range for state anxiety and those Ss regarded as high-anxious. It was also noted that none of the physiological variables differed significantly following the control and meditation treatments.

Conclusions

The present evidence suggests that acute physical activity, noncultic meditation, and a quiet rest session are equally effective in reducing state anxiety.
Citations

502
Authors

| William P. Morgan | Michael S. Bahrke
Published

1978
Journal

Cognitive Therapy and Research
Volume / Issue

2:4
Author's primary institution

University of Wisconsin
A Case Series on the Effects of Kripalu Yoga for Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with substantial impairment and poor treatment response. Yoga influences processes that are linked to the maintenance of GAD including mindfulness, anxiety, and heart rate variability, but has yet to be evaluated among people with the disorder. The present study is a first step toward documenting the efficacy of yoga for reducing worry among people with GAD using a single-subject AB design case series and daily ratings of worry.

Method

Standardized self-report measures of worry, trait anxiety, experiential avoidance, mindfulness, and heart rate variability were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Three participants with primary GAD received eight twice-weekly Kripalu yoga sessions following a baseline data collection period.

Results

All participants showed systematic improvement in daily worry ratings on at least one index and all scores on self-reported measures of worry, anxiety, experiential avoidance, and mindfulness changed in the expected direction following yoga (with one or two exceptions). Participants also showed improved heart rate variability during a worry period from pre- to post-intervention.

Conclusions

Yoga has the potential to improve the processes linked to GAD and should stimulate further research in this area.
Citations

1
Authors

| Anderson PL | Cohen LL | Tully E | Masuda A | Sullivan M | Morgan JR
Published

2016
Journal

International journal of yoga therapy
Volume / Issue

26
Author's primary institution

Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA
Comparing the Effects of a Yoga Class to a Resistance Exercise Class on Body Satisfaction and Social Physique Anxiety in University Women
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives

The present study compared the effects of a single yoga group exercise class to a resistance group exercise class on state body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in women.

Method

A pre-test post-test design was used. Participants (N = 46) completed both a resistance and yoga group exercise class, in a counter-balanced order. Measures of body satisfaction and social physique anxiety were completed immediately before and after each class.

Results

A 2 (time) x 2 (class type) repeated-measures multiple analysis of variance showed a significant overall time x class type interaction, F(2, 44) = 5.69, p < .01, ηp2 = .21. There was a significant increase in body satisfaction following the yoga class. Following both classes, there was a significant decrease in social physique anxiety but the magnitude of the changes was larger following the yoga class than the resistance class.

Conclusions

Both types of exercise class were associated with improvements in body image, with greater improvements following the yoga class. This study provided evidence of the positive effects of yoga for reducing state social physique anxiety and increasing state body satisfaction, adding to correlational evidence suggesting yoga session be particularly beneficial for improving body image-related outcomes in women.
Citations

1
Authors

| Gammage KL | Drouin B | Lamarche L
Published

2016
Journal

Journal of physical activity & health
Volume / Issue

Author's primary institution

Dept of Kinesiology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada

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