Diabetes Anna Ashby and Paulina Novak by YogaClicks


About

High levels of stress hormones raise blood sugar levels and trigger cravings for sugary foods, which boosts insulin resistance.

Yoga, pranayama, meditation and mindfulness can be powerful ways to de-stress, which is what can make them a useful diabetes treatment. They offer ways of regulating blood sugar levels, lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing BMI.

These practices can also benefit sufferers of diabetes emotionally – creating a calmer mind and a more relaxed body, alleviating depression, reducing anxiety, and improving the ability to cope.


What the clinical studies say

Yoga
  • Improves glycemic control
  • Improves insulin sensitivity
  • Improves nerve function
  • Lowers blood pressure
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Reduces BMI
  • Stress reduction
Mindfulness
  • Alleviates depression
  • Improves ability to cope
  • Improves glycemic control
  • Lowers blood pressure
  • Reduces anxiety
  • Stress reduction

The clinical studies

Effect of 3-Month Yoga on Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes With or Without Complications
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the effect of yoga on anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic control, and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients on standard care in comparison with standard care alone.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

The study involved 123 patients stratified according to groups with microvascular complications, macrovascular complications, and peripheral neuropathy and without complications and assigned to receive either standard care or standard care along with additional yoga for 3 months.

Results:

In comparison with standard care alone, yoga resulted in significant reduction in BMI, glycemic control, and malondialdehyde and increase in glutathione and vitamin C. There were no differences in waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, vitamin E, or superoxide dismutase in the yoga group at follow-up.

Conclusions:

Yoga can be used as an effective therapy in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. Yoga in addition to standard care helps reduce BMI and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients
Citations

45
Authors

Shreelaxmi V Hegde | Prabha Adhikari | Shashidhar Kotian | Veena J Pinto | Sydney D'Souza | Vivian D'Souza
Published

2008
Journal

Diabetes care
Volume / Issue

34:10
Author's primary institution

Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Improving diabetes self-management through acceptance, mindfulness, and values: A randomized controlled trial.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Patients in a low-income community health center with Type 2 diabetes (N = 81) taking a one-day education workshop as part of their diabetes medical management were randomly assigned either to education alone or to a combination of education and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both groups were taught how to manage their diabetes, but those in the ACT condition also learned to apply acceptance and mindfulness skills to difficult diabetes-related thoughts and feelings.

Compared with patients who received education alone, after 3 months those in the ACT condition were more likely to use these coping strategies, to report better diabetes self-care, and to have glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values in the target range. Mediational analyses indicated that changes in acceptance coping and self-management behavior mediated the impact of treatment on changes in HbA1C.
Citations

353
Authors

Jennifer A Gregg | Glenn M Callaghan | Steven C Hayes | L. June
Published

2007
Journal

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume / Issue

75:2
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychology, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192-0120, USA
A Brief but Comprehensive Lifestyle Education Program Based on Yoga Reduces Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Mellitus
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives:

The objective of the study was to study the short-term impact of a brief lifestyle intervention based on yoga on some of the biochemical indicators of risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

Design:

The variables of interest were measured at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 10) of the intervention using a pre–post design.

Setting:

The study is the result of operational research carried out in our Integral Health Clinic (IHC). The IHC is an outpatient facility which conducts 8-day lifestyle modification programs based on yoga for prevention and management of chronic disease. A new course begins every alternate week of the year.

Subjects:

The study is based on data collected on 98 subjects (67 male, 31 female), ages 20–74 years, who attended one of our programs. The subjects were a heterogeneous group of patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and a variety of other illnesses.

Intervention:

The intervention consisted of asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), relaxation techniques, group support, individualized advice, lectures and films on the philosophy of yoga and the place of yoga in daily life, meditation, stress management, nutrition, and knowledge about the illness.

Outcome measures:

The outcome measures were fasting plasma glucose and serum lipoprotein profile. These variables were determined in fasting blood samples, taken on the first and last day of the course.

Results:

Fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very- LDL cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and total triglycerides were significantly lower, and HDL cholesterol significantly higher, on the last day of the course compared to the first day of the course. The changes were more marked in subjects with hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia.

Conclusions:

The observations suggest that a short lifestyle modification and stress management education program leads to favorable metabolic effects within a period of 9 days.
Citations

199
Authors

Ramesh L. Bijlani | Rama P. Vempati | Raj K. Yadav | Rooma Basu Ray | Vani Gupta | Ratna Sharma | Nalin Mehta | Sushil C. Mahapatra
Published

2005
Journal

Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume / Issue

11: 2
Author's primary institution

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences
The Influence of Yoga-Based Programs on Risk Profiles in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

There is growing evidence that yoga may offer a safe and cost-effective intervention for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM 2). However, systematic reviews are lacking. This article critically reviews the published literature regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on physiologic and anthropometric risk profiles and related clinical outcomes in adults with DM 2.

We performed a comprehensive literature search using four computerized English and Indian scientific databases. The search was restricted to original studies (1970–2006) that evaluated the metabolic and clinical effects of yoga in adults with DM 2. Studies targeting clinical populations with cardiovascular disorders that included adults with comorbid DM were also evaluated. Data were extracted regarding study design, setting, target population, intervention, comparison group or condition, outcome assessment, data analysis and presentation, follow-up, and key results, and the quality of each study was evaluated according to specific predetermined criteria. We identified 25 eligible studies, including 15 uncontrolled trials, 6 non-randomized controlled trials and 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Overall, these studies suggest beneficial changes in several risk indices, including glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, oxidative stress, coagulation profiles, sympathetic activation and pulmonary function, as well as improvement in specific clinical outcomes. Yoga may improve risk profiles in adults with DM 2, and may have promise for the prevention and management of cardiovascular complications in this population. However, the limitations characterizing most studies preclude drawing firm conclusions. Additional high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm and further elucidate the effects of standardized yoga programs in populations with DM 2.
Citations

131
Authors

Kim E. Innes | Heather K. Vincent
Published

2006
Journal

Evidenced based complementary and alternative medicine
Volume / Issue

1:4
Author's primary institution

Center for the Study of Complementary and Alternative Therapies, The Blake Center, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, USA
Mindfulness based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Context:

Psychological distress is linked with impaired glycemic control among diabetics.

Objective:

Estimate changes in glycemic control, weight, blood pressure, and stress-related psychological symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes participating in a standard Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program.

Design:

Prospective, observational study.

Setting:

Academic health center.

Patients:

Adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Interventions:

Participation in MBSR program for heterogeneous patient population. Diet and exercise regimens held constant.

Main Outcome Measures:

Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HA1c), blood pressure, body weight, and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (anxiety, depression, somatization, and general psychological distress scores).

Results:

Eleven of 14 patients completed the intervention. At 1 month follow-up, HA1c was reduced by 0.48% (P=.03), and mean arterial pressure was reduced by 6 mmHg (P=.009). Body weight did not change. A decrease in measures of depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress was observed.
Citations

95
Authors

Steven Rosenzweig | Diane K. Reibel | Jeffrey M. Greeson | Joel S. Edman | Samar A. Jasser | Kathy D. McMearty | Barry J. Goldstein
Published

2007
Journal

Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Volume / Issue

13:5
Author's primary institution

Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia
Effect of Yoga asanas on nerve conduction in type 2 diabetes.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Twenty Type 2 diabetic subjects between the age group of 30-60 years were studied to see the effect of 40 days of Yoga asanas on the nerve conduction velocity.

The duration of diabetes ranged from 0-10 years. Subject suffering from cardiac, renal and proliferative retinal complications were excluded from the study. Yoga asanas included Suryanamskar. Tadasan, Konasan, Padmasan Pranayam, Paschimottansan Ardhmatsyendrasan, Shavasan, Pavanmukthasan, Sarpasan and Shavasan.

Subjects were called to the cardio-respiratory laboratory in the morning time and were given training by the Yoga expert. The Yoga exercises were performed for 30-40 minutes every day for 40 days in the above sequence. The subjects were prescribed certain medicines and diet.

The basal blood glucose, nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve was measured and repeated after 40 days of Yogic regime. Another group of 20 Type 2 diabetes subjects of comparable age and severity, called the control group, were kept on prescribed medication and light physical exercises like walking.

Their basal & post 40 days parameters were recorded for comparison. Right hand and left hand median nerve conduction velocity increased from 52.81 +/- 1.1 m/sec to 53.87 +/- 1.1 m/sec and 52.46 +/- 1.0 to 54.75 +/- 1/1 m/sec respectively. Control group nerve function parameters deteriorated over the period of study, indicating that diabetes is a slowly progressive disease involving the nerves.

Yoga asanas have a beneficial effect on glycaemic control and improve nerve function in mild to moderate Type 2 diabetes with sub-clinical neuropathy.
Citations

73
Authors

V Malhorta | S Singh | OP Tandon | SV Madhu | A Prasad | SB Sharma
Published

2002
Journal

Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Volume / Issue

46:3
Author's primary institution

Department of Physiology, University College of Medical Sciences, Guru Tegh Bahadur Hospital, Delhi
Yoga Practice for the management of Type II diabetes Mellitus in Adults, a system
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

The effect of practicing yoga for the management of type II Diabetes was assessed in this systematic review through searching related electronic databases and the grey literature to the end of May 2007 using Ovid. All randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing yoga practice with other type of intervention or with regular practice or both, were included regardless of language or type of publication. Each study was assessed for quality by two independent reviewers.

Mean difference was used for summarizing the effect of each study outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Pooling of the studies did not take place due to the wide clinical variation between the studies. Publication bias was assessed by statistical methods. Five trials with 363 participants met the inclusion criteria with medium to high risk of bias and different intervention characteristics.

The studies’ results show improvement in outcomes among patients with diabetes type II. These improvements were mainly among short term or immediate diabetes outcomes and not all were statistically significant. The results were inconclusive and not significant for the long-term outcomes. No adverse effects were reported in any of the included studies.

Short-term benefits for patients with diabetes may be achieved from practicing yoga. Further research is needed in this area. Factors like quality of the trials and other methodological issues should be improved by large randomized control trials with allocation concealment to assess the effectiveness of yoga on diabetes type II. A definitive recommendation for physicians to encourage their patients to practice yoga cannot be reached at present.
Citations

65
Authors

Badr Aljasir | Maggie Bryson | Bandar Al-Shehri
Published

2008
Journal

Evidenced based complementary and alternative medicine
Volume / Issue

7:4
Author's primary institution

University of Ottawa, Canada
The role of yoga in diabetes
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

The science of yoga is an ancient one. It is a rich heritage of our culture. Several older books make a mention of the usefulness of yoga in the treatment of certain diseases and preservation of health in normal individuals. The effect of yogic practices on the management of diabetes has not been investigated well.

We carried out well designed studies in normal individuals and those with diabetes to assess the role of yogic practices on glycaemic control, insulin kinetics, body composition exercise tolerance and various comorbidities like hypertension and dyslipidemia. These studies were both short term and long term. These studies have confirmed the useful role of yoga in the control of diabetes mellitus.

Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels came down significantly. Good glycaemic status can be maintained for long periods of time. There was a lowering of drug requirement and the incidence of acute complications like infection and ketosis was significantly reduced. There were significant changes in the insulin kinetics and those of counter-regulatory hormones like cortisol. There was a decrease in free fatty acids. There was an increase in lean body mass and decrease in body fat percentage. The number of insulin receptors was also increased. There was an improvement in insulin sensitivity and decline in insulin resistance.

All these suggest that yogic practices have a role even in the prevention of diabetes. There is a beneficial effect on the co-morbid conditions like hypertension and dyslipidemia.
Citations

72
Authors

BK Sahay
Published

2007
Journal

Journal of the Associations of Physicians in India
Volume / Issue

Author's primary institution

Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, Vemana Yoga Research Institute, India

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