Drug addiction Santillán by YogaClicks


About

People with addictions use substances to try to change the way they feel about themselves. Although the most common underlying issue is a desperate lack of self-esteem – feeling worthless and not good enough, sufferers tend to look for answers outside of themselves.

Yoga, mindfulness and meditation can help sufferers look within. Taking one step at a time is at the centre of the practice – focusing on the present, and not too far into the future. Cultivating stillness through meditation and pranayama (breathing exercises) can enable the sufferer to experience the connection between body, mind and breath, and to move towards self-acceptance and, eventually, self-love.

Practicing a gentle style of yoga can also help to detoxify the body.

Clinical studies have suggested that yoga, mindfulness and meditation can help reduce drug use, improve mood, quality of life and energy levels.

Also see Alcoholism


What the clinical studies say

Yoga
  • Decreases criminal activities
  • Improvements on the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale
  • Improvements on the Quality of Recovery Index
  • Improves mood during detox
  • Improves quality of life during detox
  • Increases energy
  • Increases satisfaction and stability
  • Reduces drug use
Meditation
  • Reduces and can halt consumption of marijuana
  • Reduces drug use for those with PTSD

The clinical studies

PTSD symptoms, substance use, and vipassana meditation among incarcerated individuals
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

The present study evaluated whether Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom severity was associated with participation and treatment outcomes comparing a Vipassana meditation course to treatment as usual in an incarcerated sample.

This study utilizes secondary data. The original study demonstrated that Vipassana meditation is associated with reductions in substance use. The present study found that PTSD symptom severity did not differ significantly between those who did and did not volunteer to take the course.

Participation in the Vipassana course was associated with significantly greater reductions in substance use than treatment as usual, regardless of PTSD symptom severity levels. These results suggest that Vipassana meditation is worthy of further study for those with comorbid PTSD and substance use problems.
Citations

68
Authors

T. L. Simpson | D. Kaysen | S. Bowen | L. M. MacPherson | N. Chawla | A. Blume | G.A. Marlatt | M. Larimer
Published

2007
Journal

Journal of Traumatic Stress
Volume / Issue

20:3
Author's primary institution

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattke, WA
Evaluation of a Residential Kundalini Yoga Lifestyle Pilot Program for Addiction in India
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Previously reported substance abuse interventions incorporating meditation and spiritual approaches are believed to provide their benefit through modulation of both psychological and pyschosocial factors.

A 90-day residential group pilot treatment program for substance abuse that incorporated a comprehensive array of yoga, meditation, spiritual and mind-body techniques was conducted in Amritsar, India.

Subjects showed improvements on a number of psychological self-report questionnaires including the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale and the Quality of Recovery Index.

Application of comprehensive spiritual lifestyle interventions may prove effective in treating substance abuse, particularly in populations receptive to such approaches.
Citations

19
Authors

Sat Bir S. Khalsa | Gurucharan S. Khalsa | Haropal K. Khalsa | Makta K. Khalsa
Published

2008
Journal

Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
Volume / Issue

7:1
Author's primary institution

Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine , Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA, USA
A narrative review of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

This paper reviews the philosophical origins, current scientific evidence, and clinical promise of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction.

Historically, there are eight elements of yoga that, together, comprise ethical principles and practices for living a meaningful, purposeful, moral and self-disciplined life. Traditional yoga practices, including postures and meditation, direct attention toward one's health, while acknowledging the spiritual aspects of one's nature.

Mindfulness derives from ancient Buddhist philosophy, and mindfulness meditation practices, such as gentle Hatha yoga and mindful breathing, are increasingly integrated into secular health care settings. Current theoretical models suggest that the skills, insights, and self-awareness learned through yoga and mindfulness practice can target multiple psychological, neural, physiological, and behavioral processes implicated in addiction and relapse.

A small but growing number of well-designed clinical trials and experimental laboratory studies on smoking, alcohol dependence, and illicit substance use support the clinical effectiveness and hypothesized mechanisms of action underlying mindfulness-based interventions for treating addiction. Because very few studies have been conducted on the specific role of yoga in treating or preventing addiction, we propose a conceptual model to inform future studies on outcomes and possible mechanisms.

Additional research is also needed to better understand what types of yoga and mindfulness-based interventions work best for what types of addiction, what types of patients, and under what conditions. Overall, current findings increasingly support yoga and mindfulness as promising complementary therapies for treating and preventing addictive behaviors.
Citations

13
Authors

Surbhi Khanna | Jeffrey M. Greeson
Published

2013
Journal

Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Volume / Issue

21:3
Author's primary institution

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
Yoga as a Therapeutic Component in Treating Chemical Dependency
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

The purpose of this article is to examine the parallel in yoga, addiction, and the therapeutic process.

Chemical dependency is a self-destructive process that weakens and unbalances the individual physically, emotionally, and spiritually. Yoga is a three-fold process that can rebuild these aspects of self, serving to counteract further progression of the disease.

Yoga and meditation can be effective in helping the patient regain his/her vital center of energy, satisfaction and stability while making positive changes in their lives. Emphasis is placed on how the application of yoga in conjunction with treatment can accelerate the rehabilitative process.
Citations

17
Authors

Anne Calajoe
Published

1987
Journal

Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly
Volume / Issue

3:4
Author's primary institution

Yoga for addictions: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

It has been suggested that yoga may be effective in the management of mental health disorders including addictions.

Objective:

To critically evaluate the evidence of effectiveness of yoga as a treatment for addictions.

Methods:

Fourteen electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated any type of yoga against any type of control in individuals with any type of addiction were eligible. Methodological quality was appraised using Cochrane criteria.

Results:

Eight RCTs met the eligibility criteria. Most of these RCTs were small with serious methodological flaws. The types of addictions included in these studies were alcohol, drug and nicotine addiction. Seven RCTs suggested that various types of yoga, including hatha yoga (HY), Iyengar yoga, nidra yoga, pranayama or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) plus vinyasa yoga, led to significantly more favourable results for addictions compared to various control interventions. One RCT indicated that a methadone maintenance programme (MMP) plus HY had no effect on drug use and criminal activities compared with MMP plus psychotherapy.

Conclusions:

Although the results of this review are encouraging, large RCTs are needed to better determine the benefits of yoga for addiction.
Citations

1
Authors

Paul Posadzki | Jiae Choi | Myeong Soo Lee | Edzard Ernst
Published

2014
Journal

Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies
Volume / Issue

19:1
Author's primary institution

Medical Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea
Comparing Hatha yoga with dynamic group psychotherapy for enhancing methadone maintenance treatment: a randomized clinical trial.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

BACKGROUND:

As more methadone treatment programs are funded in an attempt to curb substance abuse and HIV infection among i.v. drug users, more cost effective treatment approaches are being sought.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate whether clients in outpatient methadone maintenance treatment who practice weekly Hatha yoga in a group setting experience more favorable treatment outcomes than those who receive conventional group psychodynamic therapy.

METHODS:

After a 5-day assessment period, 61 patients were randomly assigned to methadone maintenance enhanced by traditional group psychotherapy (ie, conventional methadone treatment) or an alternative Hatha yoga therapy (ie, alternative methadone treatment). Patients were followed for 6 months and evaluated on a variety of psychological, sociological, and biological measures. The revised Symptom Check List provided the primary psychological measures; the Addiction Severity Index provided various indices of addictive behaviors.

RESULTS:

The evidence revealed that there were no meaningful differences between traditional psychodynamic group therapy and Hatha yoga presented in a group setting. Both treatments contributed to a treatment regimen that significantly reduced drug use and criminal activities. Psychopathology at admission was significantly related to program participation regardless of treatment group.

DISCUSSION:

In addition to examining the characteristics of patients who present for treatment, this study identifies unexpected staff issues that complicate the integration of alternative and traditional treatment strategies.

CONCLUSION:

Alternative methadone treatment is not more effective than conventional methadone treatment, as originally hypothesized. However, some patients may benefit more from alternative methadone treatment than conventional methadone treatment. Additional research is necessary to determine characteristics that identify patients who might benefit from alternative methadone treatment.
Citations

90
Authors

HJ Shaffer | TA LaSalvia | Stein JP
Published

1997
Journal

Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Volume / Issue

3:57
Author's primary institution

Division on Addictions, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
Yoga as an alternative intervention for promoting a healthy lifestyle among college students.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Substance use and abuse continues to plague U.S. college campuses. The literature is replete with information from various disciplines on how to identify and intervene in this public health dilemma impacting college students. Identifications, treatments, and interventions are often based on Western medicine, but there is a growing movement and evidence supporting the effectiveness, value, and usefulness of Eastern therapies to combat this problem. Yoga is one Eastern intervention that has proven beneficial for promoting quality of life and wellness relationship to several acute and chronic illnesses.

As a result of advocating for the inclusion of yoga in traditional college settings, two college campuses in Central Illinois introduced yoga courses for students, faculty, and staff. The courses are reviewed, and the positive results reported by students are shared.

The information and evidence of yoga's benefits collected in this study warrant consideration by college campuses to initiate this practice enhancing primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in their populations.
Citations

0
Authors

Georgine R. Berent | Jeanne-Marie Zeck | Julia A. Leischner | Elizabeth A. Berent
Published

2014
Journal

Journal of Addictions nursing
Volume / Issue

4
Author's primary institution

MacMurray College, Jacksonville, IL
Yoga effects on mood and quality of life in Chinese women undergoing heroin detoxification: a randomized controlled trial.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Yoga, as a mind-body therapy, is effective in improving quality of life for patients with chronic diseases, yet little is known about its effectiveness in female heroin addicts.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of yoga on mood status and quality of life among women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence in China.

METHOD:

This study was a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five women aged 20-37 years undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence at AnKang Hospital were allocated randomly into an intervention or a control group. Women in the intervention group received a 6-month yoga intervention in addition to hospital routine care, and women in the control group received hospital routine care only. Mood status and quality of life were assessed using the Profile of Mood States and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline and following 3 and 6 months of treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate treatment and time effects on mood and quality of life.

RESULTS:

Most female heroin addicts were young and single, with a low education level. Most had used heroin by injection. Mood state and quality of life of female heroin addicts were poor. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in mood status and quality of life over time compared with their counterparts in the control group.

CONCLUSION:

Yoga may improve mood status and quality of life for women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence. Yoga can be used as an auxiliary treatment with traditional hospital routine care for these women.
Citations

5
Authors

Zhuang S M | An SH | Zhao Y
Published

2013
Journal

Nursing Research
Volume / Issue

62:4
Author's primary institution

School of Nursing, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
Physical Exercise and Yoga in Prevention and Treatment of Addictive Diseases
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Prevention of addictive diseases should be complex and systematic and it should include training of social skills, decision making skills, family intervention, etc. Similarly, effective treatment is usually long-term, systematic and complex. Physical exercise and yoga can be useful components of comprehensive prevention and treatment programs. On the other hand, competitive professional sports rather increase the number of risk factors of substance-related problems (injuries, stress, doping, one-sided strain, exhaustion, unbalanced life style, etc.). Practical experience with the use of yoga in substance dependent patients and pathological gambles are mentioned.

The advantages of yoga include the integration of physical exercise and relaxation. Beside this, yoga is not competitive, does not require expensive equipment and it can be used even in patients with severe health problems.
Citations

8
Authors

Karel Nespor | Borivoj Prokes
Published

2005
Journal

Journal of Czech Physicians
Volume / Issue

144:53
Author's primary institution

Psychiatrická lédebna Bohnice, Praha
Rehabilitation of drug-addicted persons: the experience of the Nav-Chetna Center in India.
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

The Nav-Chetna Drug De-addiction and Rehabilitation Center, Varanasi, India, was established in December 1985. It provides out-patient and residential rehabilitation services, medical treatment, counselling, educational and vocational guidance, yoga therapy and after care.

Drug-dependent persons under rehabilitation treatment at the Center are encouraged and helped to promote personal development, to build up and strengthen their initiative and confidence and to bring about improvements in their maturation, attitude and behaviour to overcome drug addiction. This is accomplished through a therapeutic-oriented programme, which creates conditions that optimize the natural tendency of the individual to self-actualize and eventually stabilize.

Yoga plays a crucial role in this programme at both pre- and post-clinical stages. It offers a new avenue for positive mental and physical health and helps to free individuals from drug dependency and its associated problems.
Citations

19
Authors

K. Sharma | V. Shukla
Published

1988
Journal

UNODC
Volume / Issue

Author's primary institution

Nav-Chetna Drug De-addiction and Rehabilitation Center, Varanasi, India
Meditation and marijuana
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Using a questionnaire survey, the authors sought to discover the effect of meditation on their subjects' use of marijuana.

While only' 15 percent of a nonmeditating control group had decreased or stopped their use of marijuana during the preceding three months, among the meditators proportions ranging from half to three-quartens (depending on the length of time since their initiation) had decreased or stopped their use during the first three months after initiation into meditation.

The authors found that the longer a person had practiced meditation, the more likely it was that he had decreased or stopped his use of marijuana.
Citations

106
Authors

M Shafil | R Lavely | R Jafe
Published

1974
Journal

American Journal of Psychiatry
Volume / Issue

131:1
Author's primary institution

A Pilot Feasibility and Acceptability Study of Yoga/Meditation on the Quality of Life and Markers of Stress in Persons Living with HIV Who Also Use Crack Cocaine
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

Persons living with HIV (PLWH) who also use crack cocaine may have stressful, chaotic lives and typically do not engage in standard medical care that addresses a multitude of extenuating life circumstances. Yoga/meditation (YM) improves quality of life (QOL) and biomarkers of stress, but the effect of this intervention is almost unknown in PLWH, particularly those who use crack cocaine.

Objectives:

This pilot study sought to compare the feasibility and acceptability of 60-minute, twice-per-week sessions of YM for 2 months with those of no-contact control and to evaluate the effects of the intervention on QOL (according to the Short Form-36, Perceived Stress Scale [PSS], and Impact of Events Scale [IES]) and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) among PLWH who use crack cocaine.

Design:

Participants were randomly assigned to YM or no-contact control and were assessed at baseline, 2 months after the intervention, and 4 months' follow-up.

Results:

The YM program was acceptable and feasible, with high overall attendance (89%) and individual participation in yoga sessions (83%). YM participants showed modest improvements on QOL. The PSS total score and the IES intrusion score improved significantly 2 months after the intervention, but cortisol and DHEA-S did not change.

Conclusions:

This pilot study showed a high level of feasibility and acceptability and modest effects on measures of QOL among PLWH who use crack cocaine. The results suggest utility of YM as a simple, safe, and inexpensive format to improve QOL in a population that has many medical difficulties and extenuating stressors.
Citations

0
Authors

Ram P Agarwal | Adarsh Kumar | John E Lewis
Published

2015
Journal

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume / Issue

21:152
Author's primary institution

Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL
Yoga effects on mood and quality of life in Chinese women undergoing heroin detoxification: a randomized controlled trial
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background:

Yoga, as a mind–body therapy, is effective in improving quality of life for patients with chronic diseases, yet little is known about its effectiveness in female heroin addicts.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of yoga on mood status and quality of life among women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence in China.

Method:

This study was a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five women aged 20–37 years undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence at AnKang Hospital were allocated randomly into an intervention or a control group. Women in the intervention group received a 6-month yoga intervention in addition to hospital routine care, and women in the control group received hospital routine care only. Mood status and quality of life were assessed using the Profile of Mood States and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline and following 3 and 6 months of treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate treatment and time effects on mood and quality of life.

Results:

Most female heroin addicts were young and single, with a low education level. Most had used heroin by injection. Mood state and quality of life of female heroin addicts were poor. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in mood status and quality of life over time compared with their counterparts in the control group.

Conclusion:

Yoga may improve mood status and quality of life for women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence. Yoga can be used as an auxiliary treatment with traditional hospital routine care for these women.
Citations

6
Authors

Shu Mei Zhuang, Shi-hui An, Yue Zhao
Published

2013
Journal

Nursing Research
Volume / Issue

62 : 4
Author's primary institution

Noble eightfold path and yoga (NEPY): a group for women experiencing substance use challenges
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

This article describes the structure and methodology of a group created for women living with substance use challenges. The group was held at a community-based addictions services agency and combined physical activity (hatha yoga) with meditation and planned topics for self-reflection. Group work practice, in many forms, has been used successfully for decades as a helping modality for addictions issues, but the implementation of this innovative, insight-based approach is untried. Offered weekly for 10 weeks, the group was well attended with regular members. Limited qualitative feedback indicating satisfaction and beneficial impacts was gathered during the final group meeting.
Citations

1
Authors

Arielle Dylan
Published

2014
Journal

Social Work With Groups
Volume / Issue

37 : 2
Author's primary institution

School of Social Work, St. Thomas University , New Brunswick , Canada
Mindfulness meditation for substance use disorders: a systematic review
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs. The comprehensive search for and review of literature found over 2000 abstracts and resulted in 25 eligible manuscripts (22 published, 3 unpublished: 8 randomized controlled trials, 7 controlled nonrandomized, 6 noncontrolled prospective, and 2 qualitative studies, and 1 case report). When appropriate, methodological quality, absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat, and effect size were assessed. Overall, although preliminary evidence suggests MM efficacy and safety, conclusive data for MM as a treatment of SUDs are lacking. Significant methodological limitations exist in most studies. Further, it is unclear which persons with SUDs might benefit most from MM. Future trials must be of sufficient sample size to answer a specific clinical question and should target both assessment of effect size and mechanisms of action.
Citations

151
Authors

Department of Family Medicine , University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health , Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Published

2009
Journal

Substance Abuse
Volume / Issue

30 : 4
Author's primary institution

Department of Family Medicine , University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health , Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Adding integrative meditation with ear acupressure to outpatient treatment of cocaine addiction: a randomized controlled pilot study
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives:

Cocaine addiction continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. With no U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved pharmaceutical therapy, treatment often relies on psychosocial interventions. This pilot therapy development study attempts to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding breathing-based Integrative Meditation and Ear Acupressure (IMEA) to outpatient treatment of cocaine addiction.

Design:

Fifty-six (56) cocaine-dependent patients were recruited from an outpatient addiction treatment facility in Baltimore, MD and randomized into either an IMEA or a treatment as usual (TAU) group for the 12 weeks of study, with weekly meetings to monitor treatment outcomes and to facilitate meditative therapy.

Outcome measures:

The outcome measures consisted of treatment retention rates by week 8 and 12; abstinence rates measured by 6 continuous weeks of negative urinalysis for cocaine, and addiction-related symptoms such as anxiety, craving, depression, and withdrawal symptoms.

Results:

With the assistance of simplified breath training and a portable MP4 device, 80% of IMEA participants self-reported practicing breathing or meditation 5+ days a week with acceptable compliance and showed strong interest in meditative techniques. Compared to TAU, IMEA participants reported significantly higher treatment completion rates by week 8 (89% versus 63%) and week 12 (81% versus 58%), higher abstinence rates (66% versus 34%), and significantly greater reduction in craving, anxiety, and other addiction-related symptoms. Some participants continued meditation after study completion.

Conclusions:

It is feasible to add breathing-based IMEA to outpatient treatment of cocaine addiction. Although a number of limitations exist for this pilot study, further large-scale clinical trials and therapy-development studies of IMEA for addiction are warranted.
Citations

2
Authors

Kevin W Chen, Christine C. Berger, Devang Gandhi, Eric Weintraub, C. W. Lejuez
Published

2013
Journal

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume / Issue

19 : 3
Author's primary institution

Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

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