High blood pressure Swami Atma Gyanam by YogaClicks


About

Stress leads us to make the bad choices that raise blood pressure – working long hours, eating the wrong food, drinking too much, smoking.

Yoga, pranayama (breathing exercises), meditation and mindfulness can help reduce stress levels and, as a result, lower blood pressure.

Yoga can also work by bringing more awareness to our bad habits. When we notice the impact of those habits on how we feel we can take the first step on the journey to more healthy choices.

Clinical studies suggest that yoga is a useful high blood pressure treatment. It can significantly reduce blood pressure, reducing the need for medication, and improving quality of life. In combination with drugs it can also control body weight.


What the clinical studies say

Yoga
  • A drug and yoga regime controls body weight
  • A drug and yoga regime controls pulse rate
  • A drug and yoga regime controls systolic and diastolic blood pressure
  • Decline in diastolic blood pressure amongst those practicing at home
  • Improvement in quality of life amongst those practicing at home
  • Reduction in antihypertensive drug requirements
  • Significantly reduces blood pressure

The clinical studies

Effect of selected Yoga practices on the management of Hypertension
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Abstract: On the basis of medical officers diagnosis, thirty three (N = 33) hypertensives, aged 35-65 years, from Govt. General Hospital, Pondicherry, were examined with four variables viz, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate and body weight.

The subjects were randomly assigned into three groups. The expo group-I underwent selected yoga practices, expo group-If received medical treatment by the physician of the said hospital and the control group did not participate in any of the treatment stimuli. Yoga imparted in the morning and in the evening with 1 hrlsession. day'! for a total period of ll-weeks. Medical treatment comprised drug intake every day for the whole experimental period.

The result of pre-post test with ANCOVA revealed that both the treatment stimuli (i.e., yoga and drug) were effective in controlling the variables of hypertension.
Citations

164
Authors

R. Murugesan | N. Govindarajulu | T.K. Bera
Published

2000
Journal

Indian J Physiol Pharmacol
Volume / Issue

44:2
Author's primary institution

Department of Physical Education, Pondicherry University
Impact of yoga on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background

Medical treatment of hypertension is not always sufficient to achieve blood pressure control. Despite this, previous studies on supplementary therapies, such as yoga, are relatively few. We investigated the effects of two yoga interventions on blood pressure and quality of life in patients in primary health care diagnosed with hypertension.

Methods

Adult patients (age 20–80 years) with diagnosed hypertension were identified by an electronic chart search at a primary health care center in southern Sweden. In total, 83 subjects with blood pressure values of 120–179/≤109 mmHg at baseline were enrolled. At baseline, the patients underwent standardized blood pressure measurement at the health care center and they completed a questionnaire on self-rated quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). There were three groups: 1) yoga class with yoga instructor (n = 28); 2) yoga at home (n = 28); and 3) a control group (n = 27). The participants were matched at the group level for systolic blood pressure. After 12 weeks of intervention, the assessments were performed again. At baseline a majority of the patients (92%) were on antihypertensive medication, and the patients were requested not to change their medication during the study.

Results

The yoga class group showed no improvement in blood pressure or self-rated quality of life, while in the yoga at home group there was a decline in diastolic blood pressure of 4.4 mmHg (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Moreover, the yoga at home group showed significant improvement in self-rated quality of life compared to the control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

A short yoga program for the patient to practice at home seems to have an antihypertensive effect, as well as a positive effect on self-rated quality of life compared to controls. This implies that simple yoga exercises may be useful as a supplementary blood pressure therapy in addition to medical treatment when prescribed by primary care physicians.
Citations

6
Authors

Moa Wolff |  Kristina Sundquist |  Sara Larsson Lönn and Patrik Midlöv
Published

2013
Journal

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Volume / Issue

13
Author's primary institution

Center for primary health care research, Department of clinical sciences in Malmo, Lund University, Sweden
Randomised Controlled Trial of Yoga and Bio-Feedback in the Management of Hypertension
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

34 hypertensive patients were assigned at random either to six weeks' treatment by yoga relaxation methods with bio-feedback or to placebo therapy (general relaxation).

Both groups showed a reduction in blood-pressure (from 168/100 to 141/84 mm. Hg in the treated group and from 169/101 to 160/96 mm. Hg in the control group). The difference was highly significant. The control group was then trained in yoga relaxation, and their blood-pressure fell to that of the other group (now used as controls).
Citations

341
Authors

Chandra Patel
Published

1973
Journal

The Lancet
Volume / Issue

1:7925
Author's primary institution

Epidemiology and Medical Care Unit, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
12 Month Follow Up of Yoga and Bio-Feedback in the Management of Hypertension
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Twenty hypertensive patients treated by psychophysical relaxation exercises were followed up monthly for 12 months. Age and sex matched hypertensive controls were similarly followed up for 9 months. Statistically significant reductions in blood-pressure (B.P.) and antihypertensive drug requirements were satisfactorily maintained in the treatment group. Mere repetition of B.P. measurements and increased medical attention did not in themselves reduce B.P. significantly in control patients.
Citations

247
Authors

C.H. Patel
Published

1975
Journal

The Lancet
Volume / Issue

1: 7898
Author's primary institution

Epidemiology and Medical Care Unit, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
Role of yoga in management of essential hypertension
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Twenty five patients of essential hypertension were studied. Of these, 20 patients were not given any antihypertensive drug treatment (Group A); other 5 had to be put on antihypertensive drugs before including them in the study (Group B). These patients were demonstrated "Shavasana" and trained to perform it correctly.

Shavasana therapy was continued for six months. There was a statistically significant fall in both mean systolic and diastolic pressure of both groups. Further, there was a significant reduction in doses of antihypertensive drugs, being given to patients of group B. In 65% patients of group A, blood pressure could be controlled with Shavasana only and no drug was needed in them at all.

Blood pressure rose significantly to pre-Shavasana levels in patients who left practicing yoga. Thus, with use of yoga (Shavasana) in therapy of hypertension, requirement of antihypertensive drugs may be significantly decreased and in some cases may be totally dispensed with and it may be an useful adjunct in treatment of hypertension.
Citations

61
Authors

S. Sundar | S.K. Agrawal | V.P.Singh | S.K Bhattacharya | K.N. Udupa | S.K. Vaish
Published

1984
Journal

Acta Cardiologica
Volume / Issue

39:3
Author's primary institution

Banaras Hindu University, Vārānasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Yoga for hypertension: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives

To critically evaluate the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment of hypertension.

Methods

Seventeen databases were searched from their inceptions to January 2014. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included, if they evaluated yoga against any type of control in patients with any form of arterial hypertension. Risk of bias was estimated using the Cochrane criteria. Three independent reviewers performed the selection of studies, data extraction, and quality assessments.

Results

Seventeen trials met the inclusion criteria. Only two RCTs were of acceptable methodological quality. Eleven RCTs suggested that yoga leads to a significantly greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to various forms of pharmacotherapy, breath awareness or reading, health education, no treatment (NT), or usual care (UC). Eight RCTs suggested that yoga leads to a significantly greater reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or night-time DBP compared to pharmacotherapy, NT, or UC. Five RCTs indicated that yoga had no effect on SBP compared to dietary modification (DIM), enhanced UC, passive relaxation (PR), or physical exercises (PE). Eight RCTs indicated that yoga had no effect on DBP compared to DIM, enhanced UC, pharmacotherapy, NT, PE, PR, or breath awareness or reading. One RCT did not report between-group comparisons.

Conclusion

The evidence for the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment of hypertension is encouraging but inconclusive. Further, more rigorous trials seem warranted.
Citations

8
Authors

Paul Posadzki, Holger Cramer, Adrian Kuzdzal, Myeong Soo Lee, Edzard Ernst
Published

2014
Journal

Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Volume / Issue

22 : 3
Author's primary institution

University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK
Yoga and hypertension: a systematic review
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Lifestyle modification is a cornerstone of hypertension (HPT) treatment, yet most recommendations currently focus on diet and exercise and do not consider stress reduction strategies.

Yoga is a spiritual path that may reduce blood pressure (BP) through reducing stress, increasing parasympathetic activation, and altering baroreceptor sensitivity; however, despite reviews on yoga and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety that suggest yoga may reduce BP, no comprehensive review has yet focused on yoga and HPT.

A systematic review of all published studies on yoga and HPT was performed revealing 39 cohort studies, 30 nonrandomized, controlled trials (NRCTs), 48 randomized, controlled trials (RCTs), and 3 case reports with durations ranging from 1 wk to 4 y and involving a total of 6693 subjects.

Most studies reported that yoga effectively reduced BP in both normotensive and hypertensive populations. These studies suggest that yoga is an effective adjunct therapy for HPT and worthy of inclusion in clinical guidelines, yet the great heterogeneity of yoga practices and the variable quality of the research makes it difficult to recommend any specific yoga practice for HPT.

Future research needs to focus on high quality clinical trials along with studies on the mechanisms of action of different yoga practices.
Citations

11
Authors

Anupama Tyagi, MA, PhD(c); Marc Cohen, MBBS(Hons), PhD, BMedSc(Hons), FAMAC, FICAE
Published

2014
Journal

Alternative Therapies
Volume / Issue

20 : 2
Author's primary institution

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University School of Health Sciences in Bundoora, Australia
Yoga for hypertension: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives

To critically evaluate the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment of hypertension.

Methods

Seventeen databases were searched from their inceptions to January 2014. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included, if they evaluated yoga against any type of control in patients with any form of arterial hypertension. Risk of bias was estimated using the Cochrane criteria. Three independent reviewers performed the selection of studies, data extraction, and quality assessments.

Results

Seventeen trials met the inclusion criteria. Only two RCTs were of acceptable methodological quality. Eleven RCTs suggested that yoga leads to a significantly greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to various forms of pharmacotherapy, breath awareness or reading, health education, no treatment (NT), or usual care (UC). Eight RCTs suggested that yoga leads to a significantly greater reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or night-time DBP compared to pharmacotherapy, NT, or UC. Five RCTs indicated that yoga had no effect on SBP compared to dietary modification (DIM), enhanced UC, passive relaxation (PR), or physical exercises (PE). Eight RCTs indicated that yoga had no effect on DBP compared to DIM, enhanced UC, pharmacotherapy, NT, PE, PR, or breath awareness or reading. One RCT did not report between-group comparisons.

Conclusion

The evidence for the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment of hypertension is encouraging but inconclusive. Further, more rigorous trials seem warranted.
Citations

8
Authors

Paul Posadzki, Holger Cramer, Adrian Kudzal, Myeong Soo Lee, Edzard Ernst
Published

2014
Journal

Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Volume / Issue

22 : 3
Author's primary institution

University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK
A systematic review and meta-analysis of yoga for hypertension
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Background

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation for yoga as a therapeutic means in the management of prehypertension and hypertension.

Methods

MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and IndMED were screened through February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of yoga interventions (≥8 weeks) compared with usual care or any active control intervention on blood pressure in patients with prehypertension (120–139/80–89mm Hg) or hypertension (≥140/≥90mm Hg). Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool; quality of evidence was assessed according to the GRADE recommendations.

Results

Seven RCTs with a total of 452 patients were included. Compared with usual care, very low–quality evidence was found for effects of yoga on systolic (6 RCTs, n = 278; mean difference (MD) = −9.65mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −17.23 to −2.06, P = 0.01; heterogeneity: I2 = 90%, χ2 = 48.21, P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (6 RCTs, n = 278; MD = −7.22mm Hg, 95% CI = −12.83 to −1.62, P = 0.01; heterogeneity: I 2 = 92%, χ2 = 64.84, P < 0.01). Subgroup analyses revealed effects for RCTs that included hypertensive patients but not for RCTs that included both hypertensive and prehypertensive patients, as well as for RCTs that allowed antihypertensive comedication but not for those that did not. More adverse events occurred during yoga than during usual care. Compared with exercise, no evidence was found for effects of yoga on systolic or diastolic blood pressure.

Conclusions

Larger studies are required to confirm the emerging but low-quality evidence that yoga may be a useful adjunct intervention in the management of hypertension.
Citations

5
Authors

Holger Cramer, Heidemarie Haller, Romy Lauche, Nico Steckhan, Andreas Michalsen, Gustav Dobos
Published

2014
Journal

American Journal of Hypertension
Volume / Issue

Author's primary institution

Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Faculty of Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
Effectiveness of yoga for hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objectives

To systematically review and meta-analyze the effectiveness of yoga for reducing blood pressure in adults with hypertension and to assess the modifying influences of type and length of yoga intervention and type of comparison group.

Methods

Academic Search Premier, AltHealthWatch, BIOSIS/Biological Abstracts, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Natural Standard, and Web of Science databases were screened for controlled studies from 1966 to March 2013. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.

Results

All 17 studies included in the review had unclear or high risk of bias. Yoga had a modest but significant effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (4.17 [6.35, 1.99] P=0.0002) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (3.62 [4.92, 1.60], P=0.0001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated significant reductions in blood pressure for (1) interventions incorporating 3 basic elements of yoga practice (postures, meditation, and breathing) (SBP: 8.17mmHg [12.45, 3.89]; DBP: 6.14mmHg [9.39, 2.89]) but not for more limited yoga interventions; (2) yoga compared to no treatment (SBP: 7.96 mmHg [10.65, 5.27]) but not for exercise.

Conclusion

Yoga can be preliminarily recommended as an effective intervention for reducing blood pressure. Additional rigorous controlled trials are warranted to further investigate the potential benefits of yoga.Objectives

To systematically review and meta-analyze the effectiveness of yoga for reducing blood pressure in adults with hypertension and to assess the modifying influences of type and length of yoga intervention and type of comparison group.

Methods

Academic Search Premier, AltHealthWatch, BIOSIS/Biological Abstracts, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Natural Standard, and Web of Science databases were screened for controlled studies from 1966 to March 2013. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.

Results

All 17 studies included in the review had unclear or high risk of bias. Yoga had a modest but significant effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (4.17 [6.35, 1.99] P=0.0002) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (3.62 [4.92, 1.60], P=0.0001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated significant reductions in blood pressure for (1) interventions incorporating 3 basic elements of yoga practice (postures, meditation, and breathing) (SBP: 8.17mmHg [12.45, 3.89]; DBP: 6.14mmHg [9.39, 2.89]) but not for more limited yoga interventions; (2) yoga compared to no treatment (SBP: 7.96 mmHg [10.65, 5.27]) but not for exercise.

Conclusion

Yoga can be preliminarily recommended as an effective intervention for reducing blood pressure. Additional rigorous controlled trials are warranted to further investigate the potential benefits of yoga.
Citations

31
Authors

Marshall Hagins, Rebecca States, Terry Selfe, Kim Innes
Published

2013
Journal

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume / Issue

2013
Author's primary institution

Department of Physical Therapy, Long Island University, Brooklyn Campus, One University Plaza, Brooklyn, NY
Effects of Hatha yoga on blood pressure, salivary a-amylase, and cortisol function among normotensive and prehypertensive youth
Practice
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
Abstract

Objective:

Evidence is accumulating, predominantly among clinical trials in adults, that yoga improves blood pressure (BP) control, with downregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) projected as underlying mechanisms. This pilot study assessed whether Hatha yoga has the potential to reduce BP among youth and whether dampening of the SNS and/or HPA activity is a likely pathway of change.

Design:

Thirty-one seventh graders were randomly assigned to a Hatha yoga program (HYP) or attention control (AC) music or art class. Baseline and 3-month evaluations included resting BP; overnight urine samples; and saliva collected at bedtime, upon awakening, and at 30 and 60 minutes after awakening for α-amylase and cortisol assays.

Results:

Twenty-eight (14 in the HYP group and 14 in the AC group) students were assessed both before and after the intervention. BP changes from pre- to post-intervention were −3.0/−2.0 mmHg for the HYP group and −0.07/−0.79 mmHg for the AC group (p=0.30 and 0.57, respectively). Changes in systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) for the prehypertensive (75th–94th percentiles for SBP) subgroup analyses were −10.75/−8.25 mmHg for the HYP group (n=4) versus 1.8/1.0 mmHg for the AC group (n=5) (p for SBP=0.02; p for DBP=0.09). Although no statistically significant group differences were observed with changes in SNS or HPA awakening curves (area under curve for α-amylase and cortisol, respectively), a small to moderate effect size was seen favoring a reduction of α-amylase activation for the HYP group (Cohen d=0.34; prehypertensive d=0.20).

Conclusions:

A school-based Hatha yoga program demonstrated potential to decrease resting BP, particularly among prehypertensive youth. Reduced SNS drive may be an underlying neurohormonal pathway beneficially affected by the program. A large-scale efficacy/effectiveness randomized clinical trial is warranted.
Citations

2
Authors

John C. Sieverdes, Martina Mueller, Mathew J. Gregoski, Brenda Brunner-Jackson, Lisa McQuade, Cameron Mathews, Frank A. Treiber
Published

2014
Journal

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume / Issue

20 : 4
Author's primary institution

Medical University of South Carolina, Technology Applications Center for Healthful Lifestyles, Charleston, SC

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